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Objective: The incidence of anaerobic bacteremia varies according to regions, health institutions, and patient population. Anaerobic bacteria are isolated from blood cultures with a frequency of 0.5-13%. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and the distribution of anaerobic bacteria in a university hospital over a three-year period.

Methods: In this study, microbiological and demographic data of anaerobic bacteremia cases detected in our hospital between 2017 and 2019 were analyzed, retrospectively. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, Bruker, Daltonik, Bremen, Germany) was used to identify the isolates.

Results: Anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures were Bacteroides fragilis group (n=40), Cutibacterium spp. (n=27), Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (n=17), Actinomyces spp. (n=14), Clostridium spp. (n=11), Fusobacterium spp. (n=2), Prevotella spp. (n=2) and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, (n=1) respectively. In addition, two Gram-positive anaerobic bacilli and one Gram-negative anaerobic bacillus which could not be identified by MALDI-TOF MS were isolated. Polymicrobial anaerobic bacteremia was not detected. 53.8% of the patients were male and 46.2% were female. The median age of the patients was 64 (age range, 1-92) years and 96.6% of them were adult patients. Comorbidities were common in patients with anaerobic bacteremia, and the most common underlying diseases were solid and hematological malignancies. In our hospital, 30-day mortality rate in anaerobic bacteremia cases was 25.6%. Clostridum spp. and B. fragilis group constituted 73.3% of the cases with mortality. The 30-day mortality of the patients with bacteremia with these two species was found to be significantly higher than the other species (p=0.001).

Conclusions: In conclusion, although the incidence of anaerobic bacteremia is low, hospitals should regularly examine the prevalence of anaerobic bacteremia and its related factors due to their high mortality rates, impact of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in prognosis, and the increasing rate of resistance in anaerobic bacteria in recent years.

Klimik Dergisi 2020; 33(3): 286-91.

Cite this article as: Demir-Çuha M, Hazırolan G. [Anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures in Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Hospital between 2017 and 2019: A three-year evaluation]. Klimik Derg. 2020; 33(3): 286-91. Turkish.