Objective: It is currently recommended for all pregnant women to undergo an anti-HIV screening test and, if required, to be treated with antiretroviral therapy. However, there are cases of false positive HIV results associated with pregnancies. We aimed to verify the results obtained through 4th generation anti-HIV ELISA from pregnant women as the subject and also to evaluate the necessity of antiretroviral prophylaxis for newborns.
Methods: The study was conducted in 2015 in İstanbul using samples collected from 19 783 women, all samples were analyzed with the use of the 4th generation anti-HIV ELISA test. Anti-HIV-positive samples were confirmed using Western blot. The collected samples were divided into two groups: samples received from pregnant (n=14,025) and non-pregnant (n=5758) women.
Results: In the pregnant women group, 38 (0.27%) samples were anti-HIV-positive and 36 (0.25%) samples had a false positive test result (anti-HIV S/Co; X=2.45). However, in the non-pregnant group, 6 (0.10%) were tested as anti-HIV-positive, all of which proved to be false positive results (anti-HIV S/Co; X=2.22). The difference in the number of false positive anti-HIV results between pregnant and non-pregnant women was statistically significant (p=0.034).
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that the 4th generation anti-HIV ELISA testing system can produce false positive results in pregnant women of Turkish heritage. Also, it is not necessary to apply zidovudine prophylaxis routinely in infants born to every mother with an anti-HIV-positive result. “Real-time” PCR should be considered as an alternative method used in the management of pregnant women with false positive anti-HIV results, particularly prior to making any decisions to use zidovudine prophylaxis in newborns. Klimik Dergisi 2018; 31(3): 210-3.
Cite this article as: Sayan M, İnci A, Şanlı K. [Does anti-HIV positivity in pregnancy suggest the requirement of HIV prophylaxis for newborn?]. Klimik Derg. 2018; 31(3): 210-3. Turkish.