Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare, invasive fungal infection with high mortality. It is frequently associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, hematologic malignancies receiving high-dose chemotherapy, HIV infection, organ transplantation, and hemodialysis. An 84-year-old diabetic male presenting with headache, loss of appetite, oral ulcers and respiratory distress was diagnosed as rhinocerebral mucormycosis based on the findings of physical examination, positive fungal culture for Rhizopus oryzae, radiological imaging and histopathologic examination. Clinical improvement was achieved in the patient with blood glucose regulation, antifungal treatment and surgical debridement. This case emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and management of the underlying disease together with surgical debridement and antifungal treatment of the rhinocerebral mucormycosis, which has a very poor prognosis. Klimik Dergisi 2011; 24(3): 191-4.
Key Words: Diabetes mellitus, rhinocerebral mucormycosis, Rhizopus oryzae.